Viewing Easter’s rich history

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By The Staff

A major controversy in early Christianity, in which an Eastern and a Western position can be distinguished, occurred in fixing the date on which the Resurrection of Jesus was to be observed and celebrated, according to research by Hans J. Hillerbrand for the Encyclopedia Britannica.

The dispute was not definitively resolved, he said, until the 8th century.

In Asia Minor, Christians observed the day of the Crucifixion on the same day that Jews celebrated Passover – the 14th day of the first full moon of spring. The Resurrection was observed two days later regardless of the day of the week.

In the West, the Resurrection of Jesus was celebrated on the first day of the week, Sunday, when Jesus had risen from the dead. Consequently, Easter was always celebrated on the first Sunday after the 14th day of the month of Nisan.

Increasingly, the churches opted for the Sunday celebration, and “fourteenth day” proponents remained a minority.

The Council of Nicaea in 325, decreed that Easter should be observed on the first Sunday following the first full moon after the spring equinox (March 21). Easter, therefore, can fall on any Sunday between March 22 and April 25.

Eastern Orthodox churches use a slightly different calculation based on the Julian rather than the Gregorian calendar (which is 13 days ahead of the former), with the result that the Orthodox Easter celebration usually occurs later than that celebrated by Protestants and Roman Catholics.

Also, Orthodox tradition prohibits Easter from being celebrated before or at the same time as Passover.

In the 20th century, attempts were made to arrive at a fixed date for Easter, with the Sunday following the second Saturday in April specifically proposed, Hillerbrand said. While this proposal has supporters, it has not come to fruition.

In the Christian calendar, Easter follows Lent, the period of 40 days (not counting Sundays) before Easter, which traditionally is observed by acts of penance and fasting.

Easter is immediately preceded by Holy Week, which includes Maundy Thursday, the commemoration of Jesus’ Last Supper with his disciples; Good Friday, the day of his Crucifixion; and Easter Saturday, the transition between Crucifixion and Resurrection. Liturgically, Easter comes after the Great Vigil, which was originally observed sometime between sunset on Easter Saturday and sunrise on Easter Sunday.

Later, it would be celebrated in Western churches on Saturday evening, then on Saturday afternoon, and finally on Sunday morning. In 1955, the Roman Catholic Church set the time for the vigil at 10 p.m., which allowed for the Easter mass to be celebrated after midnight.

In the Orthodox traditions, the vigil continues to be an important liturgical event, while in Protestant churches it is little known, he said.

By the fourth century, the Easter vigil was well established in various liturgical expressions. It was characterized by a spirit of joyful anticipation of the Resurrection and – because of the belief that Jesus’ Second Coming would occur on Easter – the return of Jesus.

In the Roman Catholic tradition, the vigil has four parts: the celebration of lights focused on the Easter candle; the service of lessons called the prophecies; the administration of the sacrament of baptism; and the Easter mass. The use of the Easter candle, to denote the appearance of light out of darkness through the Resurrection, was first recorded in the year 384; by the 10th century it had gained general usage.

All Christian traditions have their own special liturgical emphases for Easter. The Easter sunrise service, for example, is a distinctive Protestant observance in North America, Hillerbrand said. The practice may derive from the Gospel narrative of Jesus’ Resurrection, which states that Mary Magdalene went to the tomb “while it was still dark” (John 20:1) or as dawn was breaking (Matthew 28:1 and Luke 24:1). It is a service of jubilation that takes place as the sun rises to dispel the darkness.

Easter, like Christmas, has accumulated a great many traditions, some of which have little to do with the Christian celebration of the Resurrection but derive from folk customs.

The custom of the Easter lamb appropriates both the appellation used for Jesus in Scripture (“behold the lamb of God which takes away the sins of the world,” John 1:29) and the lamb’s role as a sacrificial animal in ancient Israel.

The use of painted and decorated Easter eggs was first recorded in the 13th century. The church prohibited the eating of eggs during Holy Week, but chickens continued to lay eggs during that week, and the notion of specially identifying those as “Holy Week” eggs brought about their decoration.

The egg itself became a symbol of the Resurrection. Just as Jesus rose from the tomb, the egg symbolizes new life emerging from the eggshell.

In the Orthodox tradition, eggs are painted red to symbolize the blood Jesus shed on the cross. In the United States, Easter egg hunts are popular among children, and in 1878 Lucy Hayes, the wife of President Rutherford B. Hayes, sponsored the first annual Easter egg roll on the White House lawn.

The custom of associating a rabbit with Easter arose in Protestant areas in Europe in the 17th century but did not become common until the 19th century. In some European countries, other animals are associated with Easter, he said. In Switzerland it’s the cuckoo and the fox brought the Easter eggs in Westphalia.